Anarchists in the Gulag (and prison and exile)

Bolshevik repression of anarchists after 1917

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David Grigor’evich Polyakov

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Polyakov (Polyakoff) David Grigor’evich (Poliakoff, David) (25.12.1892, Smolensk – 12.9.1942, Oświęcim [Auschwitz], Poland). Anarchist. In 1918 he was a member of the Smolensk Federation of Anarchists. From the beginning of 1919 he worked in various groups of the Confederation of Anarchist Organization of Ukraine “Nabat” and collaborated in putting out the anarchist newspaper La Libre féderation (Lausanne, 1915–1919).

In the early 1920’s he lived in Poland, then emigrated to France. [He lived in the 11th arrondissement of Paris. He worked as a tailor and later as a mechanic.] He was a member of the French “Anarchist Union” as well as Russian and Jewish anarchist groups in Paris. In April 1925 he went illegally to Berlin and took part in organizing the escape of N. I. Makhno from Moabit Prison. He helped Makhno cross the border into Belgium and took him to Paris.

In the 1920’s and 1930’s he was a member of the “Relief Fund of the International Working Men’s Association (IWMA) for Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia”. As a representative of the Fund he took part in the 4th Congress of the IWA (Madrid, 16-21.6.1931). On the eve of the capture of Paris by German forces in May, 1940, he fled to the west of France, but then had to return to occupied Paris. He refused to wear the yellow Star of David, was arrested in the street, and as a Jew he was deported on 22.6.1942 on Convoy (Transport) No. 3 from the Drancy transit camp to Oświęcim (Auschwitz). Convoy arrived at Auschwitz 24.6.1942. Polyakov had a camp serial number 41050. He was executed by the Nazis in Oświęcim on 12.8.1942.

Archives:

International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. Alexander Berkman Papers. Inv. no. 53.

Death books from Auschwitz Concentration camp / Państwowe Muzeum Oświęcim-Brzezinka, p. 19856/1942.

Literature:

[Maximov, G. P.] “David Polyakov” / Delo truda – Probuzhdeniye. New York. 1946. October-November, No. 19, p. 25.

Yelensky, B. In the Struggle for Equality: The Story of the Anarchist Red Cross. Chicago: Alexander Berkman Aid Fund, 1958.

Le mémorial de la déportation des juifs de France / Beate et Serge Klarsfeld.— Paris, 1978.

Memorial to the Jews deported from France, 1942-1944: documentation of the deportation of the victims of the Final Solution in France / S. Klarsfeld. Paris: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983.

Bianco, R., Répertoire des périodiques anarchistes de langue française: un siècle de presse anarchiste d’expression française, 1880-1983. Aix-Marseille, 1987.

Sterbebücher von Auschwitz: Fragmente = Death books from Auschwitz = Ksiegi zgonów z Auschwitz. Deutsche Ausgabe: Berichte. Namensverzeichnis. Annex. Band 1-3 / hrsg.vom Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. [Red.: JerzyDȩbski]. München: K.G. Saur, 1995.

Skirda, A. Nestor Makhno: Cossack of Freedom (1888-1934). The Civil War and the Struggle for Free Soviets in Ukraine 1917-1921. — Paris: Hromada: 2001.

From: with thanks to Paul Sharkey, David Berry, militants-anarchistes.info, Anatolii Dubovik and Black Cat Press. Translated by: Malcolm Archibald.

[updated 9/2/12]

Taken from http://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/h44k6k

 

Updated version:

David Grigor’evich Polyakov

Polyakov (Polyakoff) David Grigor’evich (Poliakoff, David) (25.12.1892, Smolensk – 12.9.1942, Oświęcim [Auschwitz], Poland). Anarchist. In 1918 he was a member of the Smolensk Federation of Anarchists. From the beginning of 1919 he worked in various groups of the Confederation of Anarchist Organization of Ukraine “Nabat” and collaborated in putting out the anarchist newspaper La Libre féderation (Lausanne, 1915–1919). In 1923 Polyakov was arrested in Moscow and sentenced to exile in Turkestan, from there returned to Smolensk, but on the way escaped.

By 1924 he was in Poland, then emigrated to France. [He lived in the 20th and 11th arrondissements of Paris. He worked as a tailor and later as a mechanic.] He was a member of the French “Anarchist Union” as well as Russian and Jewish anarchist groups in Paris. A short time he was in the Unitary General Confederation of Labour (CGTU). In April 1925 he went illegally to Berlin and took part in organizing the escape of N. I. Makhno from Moabit Prison. He helped Makhno cross the border into Belgium and took him to Paris.

After the split the Abroad Organisation of the Russian Anarchist-Communists “Delo Truda” in 1928, he joined Nicolas Lazarévitch and Ida Mett to form the Collective of the Russian Workers Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists (Kollektiv russkikh rabochikh anarkhistov i anarkho-sindikalistov), which published the magazine “Osvobozhdenie Profsoiuzov” (Paris, November 1928).

From November 1930 Polyakov was a member of the “Relief Fund of the International Working Men’s Association (IWMA) for Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia”; among other, he corresponded with the exiled anarchists A.A. Kolemasov, S.A. Ruvinsky. As a representative of the Fund he took part in the 4th Congress of the IWA (Madrid, 16-21.6.1931).

On the eve of the capture of Paris by German forces in May, 1940, he fled to the west of France, but then had to return to occupied Paris. He refused to wear the yellow Star of David, was arrested in the street, and as a Jew he was deported on 22.6.1942 on Convoy (Transport) No. 3 from the Drancy transit camp to Oświęcim (Auschwitz). Convoy arrived at Auschwitz 24.6.1942. Polyakov had a camp serial number 41050. He was executed by the Nazis in Oświęcim on 12.8.1942.

Archives:

International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. Alexander Berkman Papers. Inv. no. 53.

International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam, Senya Fléchine Papers, Folder 81.

Jacques Doubinsky to Mollie Steimer and Senya Fléchine, Paris, December 17, 1929, International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam, Senya Fléchine Papers, Folder 87; November 20, 1930, IISG, Senya Fléchine Papers, Folder 87; December 26, 1930, IISG, Senya Fléchine Papers, Folder 87.

Death books from Auschwitz Concentration camp / Państwowe Muzeum Oświęcim-Brzezinka, p. 19856/1942.

Literature:

[Maximov, G. P.] “David Polyakov” / Delo truda – Probuzhdeniye. New York. 1946. October-November, No. 19, p. 25.

Yelensky, B. In the Struggle for Equality: The Story of the Anarchist Red Cross. Chicago: Alexander Berkman Aid Fund, 1958. p.77.

Le mémorial de la déportation des juifs de France / Beate et Serge Klarsfeld.— Paris, 1978.

Memorial to the Jews deported from France, 1942-1944: documentation of the deportation of the victims of the Final Solution in France / S. Klarsfeld. Paris: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1983.

Bianco, R., Répertoire des périodiques anarchistes de langue française: un siècle de presse anarchiste d’expression française, 1880-1983. Aix-Marseille, 1987.

Sterbebücher von Auschwitz: Fragmente = Death books from Auschwitz = Ksiegi zgonów z Auschwitz. Deutsche Ausgabe: Berichte. Namensverzeichnis. Annex. Band 1-3 / hrsg.vom Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. [Red.: JerzyDȩbski]. München: K.G. Saur, 1995.

Skirda, A. Nestor Makhno: Cossack of Freedom (1888-1934). The Civil War and the Struggle for Free Soviets in Ukraine 1917-1921. — Paris: Hromada: 2001.

[Updated March 2012]

From: with thanks to Paul Sharkey, David Berry, Rolf Dupuy, militants-anarchistes.info, Anatolii Dubovik and Black Cat Press. Translated by: Malcolm Archibald.

Written by gulaganarchists

8, February 2012 at 10:29 am

Odessa Anarchists Appeal to the city’s Underworld (1919)

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Thieves and robbers!

The soviet of the Odessa Anarchist Federation has a request and a warning for you. We look upon you as the product of the accursed conditions of the regimen of exploitation and violence created by the bourgeoisie and which are still with us thanks to gangsters in the hire of the White Guard officers and their foreign bayonets.

If the bourgeoisie should suffer from your activities, too bad for it. It is reaping what it sowed and it is no part of our task to look to its protection.

In the new communist society and in the fight to create it, in which we call upon the Russian proletariat and the proletariat worldwide to play their part, everything will belong to us all, there will be no private property, no rich and no poor and so there will be no call for thievery and robbery.

In our struggle against capitalism and the powers-that-be, a struggle under way for some years now, the finest and bravest sons of our class, the disinherited and exploited have placed their heads in the hangman’s noose and stepped up on to the scaffold and now line up against the wall. In the name of the blessed liberation of the workers, and for the sake of our comrades who have fallen and are falling to the executioner in the full flower of their strength and health, the soviet of the Anarchist Federation calls upon all to desist immediately from the disgraceful misdeeds carried out among you lately and for an end to abuse of the memory of revolutionary heroes and for an end to demanding money in the name of anarchists.

At the same time, the Anarchist Federation’s soviet has a word of warning for those who hold nothing sacred any more, those who ignore the appeals of workers and revolutionaries and whosoever may persist in extorting funds in the name of anarchism whereas we regard them as parasites and bourgeois with but one preoccupation, how to line their pockets even more. We give them final warning that if it can be shown that they have misused our name, they will be shot down on the spot, by us.

Odessa Anarchist Federation

 

From: Published in Shtyrbul, AA “Anarkhistskoe dvizhenie v period krizisa Rossiiskoi tsivilizatsii (konets XIX – 1-ia chetvert XX vv.)” [“The Anarchist Movement on Russian Civilisation’s Time of Crisis (from the late 19th century to the first quarter of the 20th)”, Omsk, State Pedagogical University, 1998, p. 49.]. Translated by: Paul Sharkey.

from KSL: Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library No. 69, January 2012

http://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/6t1gzq

Written by gulaganarchists

1, February 2012 at 10:37 am